Monday, July 9, 2012

Kangayam Breed

The Kangayam cattle is distributed in Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Coimbatore, Salem and Namakkal districts of Tamilnadu state in South India. The adult animals are medium in size with grey-colored body. The bulls have grey body color with dark grey to black markings on the head, neck, hump, shoulders and quarters. Horns are longer, curving outwards and backwards, then inwards and almost complete a circle or ellipse at the point where they approach the tips. A pair of bullocks has the capacity to haul a total load of 3787 ± 51.4 kg of sugarcane load over a distance of 10 to 20 km without taking rest (Kandasamy, 2001).


The blood samples (48 numbers) collected at random from these animals in several areas of the main breeding tract were subjected to microsatellite analysis during 2005-06. Genomic DNA was isolated using a routine high salt method (Miller et al., 1988) and the quantity and quality of the DNA were analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements.

Kangayam
 PCR amplification and microsatellite analysisA total of 25 microsatellite markers (Table 1) were utilized as per the suggestions of FAO in the Secondary Guidelines for Development of National Farm Animal Genetic Resources Management Plans for global management of cattle genetic resources using reference microsatellites (FAO, 2004). These markers were amplified in the target DNA samples using thermal cycler (MJ Peltier). PCR reaction mixture (20μl) containing 50-100ng of template DNA; 1.5mM MgCl2; 5 picomoles each of forward and reverse primers; 0.75units of Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen, USA) and 100mM dNTPs was prepared. Amplification was carried out with initial denaturation at 94°C for 5 minutes; followed by 30 cycles
of denaturation (94°C for 45 seconds), annealing (51°C to 58°C for 45 seconds for various primers) and extension (72°C for 45 seconds).


The PCR products were electrophoresed in 6 % denaturing polyacrylamide gel at a voltage of 1200 to 1400 for a period of 2 to 3 hours, depending upon the size of PCR products. Single-stranded 10 bp DNA ladder (Invitrogen, USA) was loaded (0.25μg) in one of the wells as a molecular weight marker. The genotyping was done after subjecting the gel to silver-staining procedure (Cominicini et al., 1995). Sizing of fragments was done using Diversity Database (BioRad) software and by manual verification. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct counting. The observed heterozygosity was calculated as the actual percentage of heterozygotes occurring in the sample population.


O n 1 8 . 4 . 2 0 1 0 an exhibition was organized by the Foundation at the Kannapuram Annual Kangayam Cattle Shandy was inaugurated by D r. Shaukar, Advisor (Animal Husbandry), Planning Commis sion , Government of India. He met farmers, livestock keepers of Kangayam breed  and documented the Kannapuram C attle Show . M r . Samayamoorthi IAS, District Collector visited the exhibition and interacted with livestock keepers at kannapuram shandy. Dr. Shaukar and the Managing Trustee visited Bargur in Erode District to see the activities of BHCBA and report the threat faced by the Bargur breed to the Government of India. The chief demands of livestock keepers were eradication of Lantana Camara (an invasive alien species), reducing the grazing area of cattle, penning permits for members of the Bargur Hill Cattle Breeders Association. Theydemande destablishment of in situ conservation and
breeding centre along with veterinary hospital in the Bargur Hills, Anthiyur Taluk, Erode District, Tamilnadu.

On 23.4.2010 the managing trustee Mr. Karthikeya Sivasenapathy, Mr. Gunadharan Govindasamy, Trustee participated in the National Consultation on Traditional Knowledge, Access and Benefit Sharing and Amendment to the National Biodiversity Act 2002 conducted by National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. The managing trustee raised the issue of gene sampling and piracy.They met Mrs.Sujatha Arora I.A.S.,Director,Ministry of Environment and Forests and explained to her the activities of SKCRF and LIFE Network. On 25.4.2010 Mr. Karthikeya Sivasenapathy and Mr. Sivasenapathy Natarajan participated in the ethno veterinary practice meeting held at Mrs. Indhrani Ramanathan farm at Kallipatti Erode district, Tamil Nadu.She is a passionate organic farmer and breeds Bargur Cattle.

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