Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Canary History From Africa

Canary. Congratulations! Whether this is your first bird or your latest addition, there are a few things you should know to help your canary live a long and healthy life. Canaries, prized for their beautiful song and lovely colors, are a type of finch, and are soft billed. Although males are most often the singers, occasionally a hen will do a little singing. Except under rare circumstances, plumage is not an indication of gender; generally, if the bird sings it is considered a male, or singer; if it merely “tweets” and “peeps” it’s considered a female, or hen.


Canaries originally came from a group of islands west of Africa known as the Canary Islands. The islands were inhabited by fierce wild dogs (Canis) for which the Romans named them. The wild canary first captured the attention of the Spaniards during their invasion of the islands in 1473. The little green/brown birds soon became popular with the soldiers and sailors because they were quickly tamed, they became well adjusted to their cages and the males sang irresistible, cheerful songs. The Spanish soldiers and sailors often took these birds back to Spain as souvenirs for their own enjoyment and as gifts for their lady friends. This practice became so popular that the birds were nicknamed “little sugar birds.” As the Spaniards recognized demand for these little sugar birds, they began exporting them. Over the past 500 years, careful selective breeding has provided the world with many beautiful colors and types of canaries.

Canaries are grouped into three basic categories:
1. Type (body size and shape, and stance: Border, Fife, Gloster, Norwich, Frill, and Yorkshire)
2. Color (green, blue [white/black], yellow, orange, red, brown, gray, and various combinations)
3. Song (Roller, Waterslager, American Singer, Timbrado, and Chopper)

A Fourth type should probably be recognized: the “mixed breed” or “Kitchen Canary”. Although they won’t win any prizes at canary shows, these colorful little gems make wonderful pets and often have a hearty and varied song.

Male canaries are very territorial, and two males should never be kept in a cage together. Two males in a cage is a recipe for disaster! Surprising as it may seem, your little songster will not be lonely without feathered friends, so long as you remember that you are his flock. He wants to be your friend, so talk to him, play music for him, let him watch TV with you, and treat him to the canary’s all-time favorite sound: your vacuum cleaner. If you must leave him alone for long stretches of time, be kind enough to leave him with a radio or some other audible entertainment. Remember that his ancestors lived in the wild, where a quiet jungle or forest means only one thing: danger. He will feel more secure if his daytime environment has a little bit of “noise”.

If you have your heart set on a pretty flock of canaries, consider a few hens, or perhaps one singer and some hens. Although three or more males may be housed together, they probably won’t sing, or only the “top bird” will sing. The male sings for two basic purposes—to flirt with lady birds and to claim his territory. Usually, he must feel like his space is his own for his song to be in top form. Also, if he is surrounded by ladies, well, he’s already won, hasn’t he? If you must have the pretty flock and the song, and he simply won’t oblige, consider putting him in a separate cage. But please don’t make him share it with a parakeet—he’s liable to get his toes bit off.

Lovebird Diet and Grooming

Lovebirds are some of the best birds to have as pets. One of the smallest in the parrot family but do not let the size fool you. Lovebirds have big bird attitudes and playfulness. Many times when we visit our local pet shop we leave with bird, cage and a bag of seeds. General lovebird care is much more in depth than most usually realize. With a bit of time and an open heart we will explore things today with some ideas as well that might help keep you and your bird healthy, happy and forever friends.


The first thing to consider in taking care of your lovebird is diet. In the wild, lovebirds eat a large variety of foods including vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, and sometimes even worms and carrion. So in keeping with their preferred natural diet you would try and mimic those things at home. Now we all realize that in the wild birds normally get tons more exercises than they do in the cage so the amount of high-fat foods we feed need to be limited. An all anything diet needs to be avoided at all costs. In the past everyone pretty much thought that a bag of seed was needed to keep birds happy.

This is a dangerous way of thinking. All seed diets can lead to obesity, high cholesterol, and multiple nutritional deficits and can cause your bird to be less resistant to disease and even cancer! A well rounded diet is needed for to keep your lovebird healthy and happy. Feed a diet of fresh vegetables, pellets, nuts, and grains, proteins, such as eggs or cooked meat and pastas, cooked, everyday. Fruits should be reserved for treats once or twice a week. Seeds are necessary for nutrients in their diets so you should feed seeds daily but in small amounts.

Your lovebird can eat pretty much everything you do with the exception of avocado, rhubarb, chocolate, caffeine or raw milk products. There are some lively debates about what not to feed your birds. A standard rule would be if it's bad for you, it's bad for them. Many lovebird owners cook for their birds and I cook for mine. Birdie bread is a great way to hide vegetables that some of the more stubborn birds will not touch. There are plenty of birdie bread recipes out there, check them out! 


Cage size is very important. Your lovebird needs to be able to stretch and flap his wings without hitting the sides of the cage or any toys. There are many cages out there and it's always best to get the largest cage you can afford for your bird. There are things to consider as well such as bar spacing. Bar spacing is very important because bar spacing to wide may cause injury to your bird as their heads can get stuck in between the bars. Birds love to climb so it makes sense that horizontal cage bars are the most desirable for the cage. Preferable at least two walls should be horizontal to allow play, climbing and hanging time for your bird. Perches are the next thing in line with the cage designs. Many cages come with wooden dowels as perches. Natural wood perches are great and it's important to remember that your bird will need different size perches to provide foot exercise and prevent foot sores or arthritis in your pet bird.

A full-spectrum light above the cage will provide Vitamin D which is filtered out by window glass. Make sure the bird can’t reach electrical cords. Birds enjoy a window view but make sure the area doesn’t overheat and that there's no draft. Check by holding a candle steady to see if the flame flickers. Birds must be able to self-regulate temperatures by moving away from heat and the sun. Birds need 10 -12 hours of rest daily. Consider a cage cover.
Grooming is essential to your bird’s health. Birds have dander, it looks like little white dust specs on your clothes and this dander/dust isn't removed when your lovebird preens his feathers. That why providing a bathing dish or misting your bird is necessary. Your lovebird should everyday have a water source other than their drinking water to bath in. Many birds adore their bath times and will have so much fun splashing around and making a big ole wet mess for you to clean up. Misting is another option for bathing your bird. Spritz them with water in a fine mist and watch the fun begin. Those birds that like to mist might also enjoy showering with you.

There are company's that make shower perches; they are affordable and easy to use. We have birds that just love to shower with us. They perch and when we are done with our showers I change the shower head setting to fine mist. It's a great fun time after that and it's a wonderful excuse to spend more time with your birds. Nails, wings and sometimes beaks all need to be trimmed from time to time. This is best accomplished by taking your bird to your avian vet or your local pet shop. Birds have blood supplies in their toe nails and wings and can bleed to death fairly quickly if one of them is nicked and not taking care of immediately. Do not attempt to cut your birds nails, wings or beaks unless you have been taught by a professional.

Keep wings and nails clipped to avoid accidents. Flour can stop bleeding. Don’t take birds outside unless caged and supervised. Lovebirds are hardy but all birds hide signs of illness. Learn what normal droppings look like so you can spot abnormalities. A sick bird doesn’t eat well, may not drink, may appear fluffed or show respiratory symptoms, or will sit on two feet or on the cage floor. Prompt vet care is essential. Provide warmth for ailing birds and during vet trips. Bring a recent dropping for the vet. During molts, provide stress food and extra protein. Offer favorite foods, Ike spray millet, when a bird is under the weather. Avoid spray products near birds, like hair spray, perfume, cleaning products, air fresheners or anything with fumes: nail polish, potpourri, scented candles. If in doubt, ventilate and move the bird temporarily. Be vigilant during holidays about non-stick bakeware, aerosol products and supervision around visitors. Make sure the bird gets its rest. Invest in a recent book about lovebirds or smaller parrots In general which has a good section on first aid.

Monday, July 9, 2012

Jallikattu Breed and Jallikattu Bull Baiting

This breed is also known as Pulikulam or Jallikattu breed. They are also known as Kilakad or Kilkattu. This breed is found in Madurai, Sivaganaga, Virudhunagar and Theni district. Large numbers of this breed were also raised in the vicinity of the Cumbum valley and the Periar River, were grazing areas of vast extent. There was a big breeder living near Madurai at Cholavandanniya (now known as Cholavandan) by the name Iyyengottai Mamzakkarar who owned 1000 heads of cattle and who also exhibited some at the Madura cattle show held 1907. The breed was very compact with stout legs and hard feet.

They have very powerful loins, shoulders, neck and capable of doing very hard work. This breed of cattle is comparatively small in size, but is very active and capable of much endurance. In the villages of South Madurai the small bulls were kept for the purpose of bull fighting or rather bull baiting and were known as “Jellicut” which means an ornament or leaves from the fact that the horns of the bulls or decorated with a vividly coloured cloth. In many points they resemble the smaller variety of the Konga or Kangayam but they are finer breed and give the idea that they have in them probably a strain of the Mysore blood. The larger variety of this breed was extensively used for coach work and they were capable of trotting continuously 5 to 6 miles an hour. Cows are poor milkers.

Jallikattu Bull Baiting

Jallikattu Bull Baiting
Every year, at the harvest celebration, over 100,000 Indians in Tamil Nadu state participate in the Jallikattu, the Indian version of the corrida. Over 200 bulls are released gradually into a crowd anxious to prove its manhood. Apparently, the rules are easy: wins the one able to stay on the back of the bull or hang from its horns for more than 50 meters. In 2006: 5 casualties and over 300 severely injured participants.

Every year, at the harvest celebration, over 100,000 Indians in Tamil Nadu state participate in the Jallikattu, the Indian version of the corrida. Over 200 bulls are released gradually into a crowd anxious to prove its manhood. Apparently, the rules are easy: wins the one able to stay on the back of the bull or hang from its horns for more than 50 meters. On top of a bamboo observation point, an announcer, who is also a referee, comments on any movement the bull makes in the crowd. The show, that lasts for about 10 hours, builds on intensity as time goes by.

Jallikattu Bull Baiting
Jallikattu Bull Baiting
The bulls are released gradually, sometimes more at one time. They are heavier than the European bulls, their horns are sharpened especially for this day and have been served some alcohol beforehand, to be more excited. Unlike at the Spanish corrida, these bulls don't end up dead at the end and neither too mistreated. As soon as the bull is released, its owner runs after him, generously slapping the participants who have been violent with the bull, especially if it is a small animal. Animal protection association lobby every year to forbid this type of entertainment, but it seems that the Indians are the ones suffering here: in 2006, there were 5 casualties and over 300 severely injured participants. At the end of the track, an ambulance waiting to be stuffed with injured people would leave regularly for nearest clinic. The bulls chaotic raids in the crowd make most of the victims to be by-standers. Usually, the participants are bull owners and they know how to protect themselves.

Jallikattu Bull Baiting
Jallikattu Bull Baiting
 Even if the awards are just caps, pots or some tin cupboards and the winners look ecstatic to receive them, it is not just about that. Is a sport to prove your manhood and bachelors get extra points in their race to marriage. For a while, they will be looked up as great public figures and their villages will talk about them for at least a few months after the contest.

Umblachery Cattle and Umblachery Breed

The Umblachery breed of cattle is also known by the names “Mottai Madu” and Mollai Madu”. Umblachery cattle which is the native breed of coastal plains of Thanjavur and Nagapattinam districts derive the name from its home tract Umblachery a small viallage situated eight Km away from Thiruthuraipoondi town in Thiruvarur district. It is believed that the Umblachery breed was derived by breeding Kangayam with the local cattle of Thanjavur district. These are light built and medium sized animals which were developed for work in the marshy rice fields of these areas. Its body is compact with tucked up abdomen.

In adult animals the predominant coat colour is grey. The intensity of colour varies from grey with admixer of black to full grey colour. The calves are red or brown at birth and changes to grey at the age of six to eight months. In male calves the horn buds are removed at about six months of age, the ears are pruned and hot iron branding done at face and sides of the body. Legs are with white markings of “socks”. Feet and hooves are white or partially white. The cows are poor milkers. Bullocks are small, swift and suited for agricultural operations.

Umblachery Cattle

Umblachery breed is an excellent draught cattle of Tamilnadu, noted for its strength and sturdiness especially used in the marshy fields for wed ploughing. Several genetic markers have been used for identification of farm animals. The present study was undertaken to characterize the Umblachery breed with chromosomes. The diploid chromosome number in Umblachery cattle was 2n=60 comprising of 29 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. All autosomes are acrocentric, the X- chromosome is submetacentric and Y chromosome is acrocentric. C-banding in Umblachery cattle was showed all autosomes with darkly stained centromere but the sex chromosomes were found to be C-band negative.

The Umblachery Cattle and Umblachery Cow population explosion and a poor distribution of food are among the world’s greatest problems today. Animals throughout the world supply human beings with milk, meat, egg, draft power, transportation, hides, fertilizer and many other useful products. Farm animal contribution to mankind in developing or under developed countries in the world is immense. Tamilnadu is the home of a few well-known draught breeds of cattle, such as Kangayam, Umblachery, Bargur, Alambadi and Pulikulam. Umblachery breed is one among the famous draught breeds of Tamilnadu. It is also known by the synonyms Mottai madu, Molai madu, Jathi madu and Therkathi madu. The Umblachery is a medium sized draught type cattle. It is strong and active with compact body and short legs.

The calves of the breed are red or brown in colour at birth. The red colour begins to change to grey at three to four months of age. Total grey colour is generally attained at six to eight months of age. In some animals, total grey colour is attained even at the age of one year. Genetic markers facilitate the "tagging" of individual genes or small chromosome segments containing genes, which influence the trait of interest. Chromosomal studies are mainly useful for gene mapping, identification of markers etc. The chromosomal studies in Umblachery breed of cattle are not available. Hence, the present study was undertaken to characterise the breed by cytogenetic parameters.

The culture technique was carried out as per Moorehead et al. (1960) with minor modification. RPMI-1640 was used as the cell culture medium. Benzyl penicillin and streptomycin sulphate were added at 100 IU/ml and 100μg/ml respectively. Autologous plasma or foetal calf serum 2ml, 0.5ml of whole blood and 0.1ml of phytohaemaglutinin (PHA-M) were added to 8 ml of culture medium. The tubes were incubated at 37ºC for 72 hrs. Colchicine (0.1μg/ml) was added one hour before harvest of cultures. The cells were subjected to hypotonic treatment (0.075M KCl) for 30 min at 37ºC.

The supernatant was removed after centrifugation at 1000 rpm for 10min leaving the cell button. Then the cells were fixed in Carnoy’s fluid (3:1 Methanol: Acetic acid). The cell fixing procedure was repeated 2 to 3 times and the tubes were placed at 4ºC overnight. Chromosome spreads were prepared and stained with 4 per cent Giemsa for 20-25 minutes. The chromosomal spreads were photographed; the length of chromosomes was measured with Vernier calliper. The per cent relative length of individual chromosome was calculated. The chromosomes were paired in the order of descending lengths for karyotyping.

Kangayam Breed

The Kangayam cattle is distributed in Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Coimbatore, Salem and Namakkal districts of Tamilnadu state in South India. The adult animals are medium in size with grey-colored body. The bulls have grey body color with dark grey to black markings on the head, neck, hump, shoulders and quarters. Horns are longer, curving outwards and backwards, then inwards and almost complete a circle or ellipse at the point where they approach the tips. A pair of bullocks has the capacity to haul a total load of 3787 ± 51.4 kg of sugarcane load over a distance of 10 to 20 km without taking rest (Kandasamy, 2001).

The blood samples (48 numbers) collected at random from these animals in several areas of the main breeding tract were subjected to microsatellite analysis during 2005-06. Genomic DNA was isolated using a routine high salt method (Miller et al., 1988) and the quantity and quality of the DNA were analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements.

 PCR amplification and microsatellite analysisA total of 25 microsatellite markers (Table 1) were utilized as per the suggestions of FAO in the Secondary Guidelines for Development of National Farm Animal Genetic Resources Management Plans for global management of cattle genetic resources using reference microsatellites (FAO, 2004). These markers were amplified in the target DNA samples using thermal cycler (MJ Peltier). PCR reaction mixture (20μl) containing 50-100ng of template DNA; 1.5mM MgCl2; 5 picomoles each of forward and reverse primers; 0.75units of Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen, USA) and 100mM dNTPs was prepared. Amplification was carried out with initial denaturation at 94°C for 5 minutes; followed by 30 cycles
of denaturation (94°C for 45 seconds), annealing (51°C to 58°C for 45 seconds for various primers) and extension (72°C for 45 seconds).

The PCR products were electrophoresed in 6 % denaturing polyacrylamide gel at a voltage of 1200 to 1400 for a period of 2 to 3 hours, depending upon the size of PCR products. Single-stranded 10 bp DNA ladder (Invitrogen, USA) was loaded (0.25μg) in one of the wells as a molecular weight marker. The genotyping was done after subjecting the gel to silver-staining procedure (Cominicini et al., 1995). Sizing of fragments was done using Diversity Database (BioRad) software and by manual verification. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct counting. The observed heterozygosity was calculated as the actual percentage of heterozygotes occurring in the sample population.

O n 1 8 . 4 . 2 0 1 0 an exhibition was organized by the Foundation at the Kannapuram Annual Kangayam Cattle Shandy was inaugurated by D r. Shaukar, Advisor (Animal Husbandry), Planning Commis sion , Government of India. He met farmers, livestock keepers of Kangayam breed  and documented the Kannapuram C attle Show . M r . Samayamoorthi IAS, District Collector visited the exhibition and interacted with livestock keepers at kannapuram shandy. Dr. Shaukar and the Managing Trustee visited Bargur in Erode District to see the activities of BHCBA and report the threat faced by the Bargur breed to the Government of India. The chief demands of livestock keepers were eradication of Lantana Camara (an invasive alien species), reducing the grazing area of cattle, penning permits for members of the Bargur Hill Cattle Breeders Association. Theydemande destablishment of in situ conservation and
breeding centre along with veterinary hospital in the Bargur Hills, Anthiyur Taluk, Erode District, Tamilnadu.

On 23.4.2010 the managing trustee Mr. Karthikeya Sivasenapathy, Mr. Gunadharan Govindasamy, Trustee participated in the National Consultation on Traditional Knowledge, Access and Benefit Sharing and Amendment to the National Biodiversity Act 2002 conducted by National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. The managing trustee raised the issue of gene sampling and piracy.They met Mrs.Sujatha Arora I.A.S.,Director,Ministry of Environment and Forests and explained to her the activities of SKCRF and LIFE Network. On 25.4.2010 Mr. Karthikeya Sivasenapathy and Mr. Sivasenapathy Natarajan participated in the ethno veterinary practice meeting held at Mrs. Indhrani Ramanathan farm at Kallipatti Erode district, Tamil Nadu.She is a passionate organic farmer and breeds Bargur Cattle.

Kangayam and Kangeyam Bull Cattle

The Kangayam cattle is an excellent draught breed of cattle, distributed with varying densities in Erode district and adjoining areas consisting part of Dindigul, Karur, Tripur, Coimbatore and Namakkal districts of Tamilnadu. Animals true to type are seen in Kangayam, Dharapurm, Perundurai, Karur and Palani taluks. Kangayam calves are generally red at birth and change to grey colour around six months. Bulls are grey with dark extremities. Bulls and cows are grey. Palayakottai Pattakars are known for the development and propagation of this breed.
The estimated total population of Kangayam Bull cattle in the breeding tract is found to be 4,79,200. Of these, breedable females, breeding bulls and working males constituted 43.53, 0.15 and 22.79 per cent respectively. The overall mean fat and SNF percent were 3.93 and 7.21 respectively. The estimated total milk yield in partial milking was 540kg with an average lactation length of 9 months. Kangayam bullocks were heavier, with a mean mature body weight of 473kg. The average age at first oestrus, first mating and first calving were 29.5, 30 and 40 months respectively and calving interval was 16 months. Superior draught quality, tolerance to disease, adaptation to poor nutrition and drought condition and longevity are excellent qualities of this breed.

Assessment of genetic variability in Kangayam breed of cattle in Tamilnadu, South India was carried out using 25 bovine microsatellite markers. The mean number of alleles was 4.04 ± 0.09 with a range of 2 to 6 and the allele size ranged from 94 to 300 bp. The frequency distribution of alleles in the breed was from 0.0104 to 0.9167. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.6183 ± 0.01 and the PIC was 0.5628 ± 0.03. The overall mean within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS) value (–0.084) suggested excess of heterozygotes in the population. In addition, higher PIC value indicated the scope for maintaining variation in the population and strategies to take meaningful conservation.

Kangeyam Bull Cattle
Kangayam Bull
The Kangayam breed of cattle of Tamilnadu is best known for its superior draught qualities, adaptation to poor nutrition and longevity (Kandasamy, 2001). Bullocks are primarily used for transport of agricultural produce, besides being used for various agricultural operations. As per the estimate of 1996, the size of Kangayam population in the breeding tract was 0.479 million. However, replacement of Kangayam cattle in few areas of the breeding tract with exotic crosses is evident. Though the population size is more, the future of Kangayam breed is secured only if meaningful conservation strategies are followed to ensure genetic variability. The variability at DNA level would provide valuable information on genetic structure of the breed. The genetic variability in different zebu cattle breeds of India like Red Kandhari and Deoni (Sodhi et al., 2005), Hallikar (Naveen Kumar et al., 2006) and Umblachery (Karthickeyan et al.,2007) had already been elucidated. Therefore, the present study was undertaken using the microsatellites, which are powerful genetic markers for biodiversity evaluation, to characterize the Kangayam breed.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Caprellidae and Amphipoda

The family Caprellidae belongs to the Suborder Caprellidea and Order Amphipoda. These crustaceans play an important role in the food chains and webs . Also they contribute as food source for the benthic fishes and other macrozoobentic invertebrate. They are also regarded as a bioindicator for pollution. This study has been carried out at Borj al-Qasab, a northward coastal region in Lattakia. The specimens were collected from sub littoral region upto 5 m deep, in 18 months from June 2006 until November 2007 .The aim of this study is to identify Caprellidae, which are very abundant among Algae, Hydrozoans and Spongia, and so to add contribution to the national project of biodiversity in the Syrian environment. The genus recorded here is: Caprella (recorded for the first time in Syria) with three species which are: C. equilibra, C. hirsute and C. acanthifera (recorded for the first time in Syria),and Subspecies C. acanthifera acanthifera.

The caprellidae fauna of the Great Barrier Reef region is investigated. The study reports 22 species in 17 genera. Three new genera and seven new species are described (Hircella berentsae n.sp., Jigurru vailhoggett n.gen., n.sp., Mayericaprella arimotoi n.gen., n.sp., Orthoprotella pearce n.sp., Perotripus keablei n.sp., Pseudoprellicana johnsoni n.gen., n.sp. and Quadrisegmentum lowryi n.sp.). All species are figured and a key to the species is provided. An ecological study conducted at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, showed that Metaprotella sandalensis Mayer, 1898 and Quadrisegmentum triangulum Hirayama, 1988, were the most common species in the coral reef system. Although the caprellids were present at most sites around the Island, they were abundant only on hydroid and sediment substrates.


Caprellid amphipods are small peracaridan crustaceans important as secondary and tertiary producers in marine ecosystems. They are common on algae, hydroids, bryozoans, sponges and seagrasses (McCain, 1968), and are important prey for many coastal fish species (Caine, 1987, 1989, 1991). Recently, caprellids have been found to be useful bioindicators of marine pollution and environmental stress (Guerra-García & García-Gómez, 2001; Takeuchi et al., 2001) adding impetus to understand the taxonomy and systematics of this group of crustaceans.

Caprellidae and Amphipoda
Caprellidae and Amphipoda

The Caprellidae of the Great Barrier Reef have not been previously studied. The scarce work existing on the Amphipoda of this area has focused on the Gammaridea; K.H. Barnard (1931) reported 14 species of gammaridean amphipods collected by the 1928–1929 Great Barrier Reef
Expedition, and Berents (1983) conducted the first study of the melitid gammarideans from tropical Australia. McCain & Steinberg (1970) listed 27 caprellid species from Australian waters, 14 in New South Wales, seven in Western Australia, three in Victoria and nine in Tasmania, but none from Queensland. Apart from the revision of McCain & Steinberg (1970), no taxonomic studies on the Caprellidae have been conducted along the Great Barrier Reef, and the only recorded species are those listed in ecological papers on benthic communities. In a list of the Crustacean species inhabiting the soft bottoms communities from Lizard Island, Queensland, Jones (1984) reported two caprellid species:

Metaprotella sp. and Phtisica marina Slabber, 1769. Jones’ (1984) specimens, deposited in the collections of the Australian Museum, are referable to Metaprotella sandalensis Mayer, 1898 and Metaproto novaehollandiae (Haswell, 1880) respectively.

The present study reports on the Caprellidae of the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent localities based primarily on museum collections. Additionally, a field study was conducted at Lizard Island in October 2001 to collect abundant material and to study habitat use by caprellids in
a coral reef system.

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